Early Learning and Developmental Standards

EARLY LEARNING SERVICES - Birth to Five Standards

Glossary of Terms for Birth to Five Standards

WordDefinition
Academic LanguageLanguage used in the classroom setting (e.g., “line leader”, “center time”, “circle time”).
AffectiveRelated to factors such as emotional regulation, child motivation, attitudes, perceptions, and values.
Age-Appropriate Grammaroral formation of sentences with some errors, but an Understanding of some grammatical rules (e.g., “She runned across the playground.”).
Agency for Workforce InnovationThe state agency in Florida responsible for administering the School Readiness, Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten and Child Care Resource and Referral programs.
Alphabetic KnowledgeThe understanding that words are composed of letters; the understanding that letters and letter combinations represent individual phonemes in words and written language (e.g., a child says the letters in some words, a child tells a teacher or a friend the letters in his/her name).
Approaches to LearningThe multiple ways in which young children engage in acquiring and using information and skills to solve problems and engage in reciprocal relationships.
ArticulationThe correct pronunciation of one or more sounds within a word (e.g., a childsays “ellow” for the word yellow or “ish” for the word fish).
AttributeA quality, property, or characteristic of somebody or something
Auditory (hearing) ScreeningEvaluations that are conducted to determine how well achild can hear.
AutonomyIndependence.
BlendTo combine sounds rapidly in order to accurately represent a word.
BlendsCombinations of two letter sounds to make one sound (e.g., /bl/ as in “blocks”; /st/ as in “street”).
BullyChild who repeatedly commits negative acts with a conscious intent to hurt another child.
BullyingRepeated negative act(s) committed by one or more children with a conscious intent to hurt another child. These negative acts can be verbal (e.g., making threats, name -calling), psychological (e.g., excluding children, spreading rumors), or physical (e.g., hitting, pushing, taking a child's possessions).
BystanderAnyone, other than the bully and victim, who is present during a bullying incident.
CaregiverA person who provides direct care for children in an early learning setting, such as a home, early learning program or other environment; can include formal caregivers such as teachers and other adults such as parents or relatives
CenterArea within the classroom arranged so that children are able to participate in avariety of learning experiences relating to art, science, reading, dramatic play, blocks,etc. (e.g., an art center, a reading center, a science center, a block center, a dramaticplay center, or a writing center).
Child AssessmentA process of gathering and describing or quantifying information across all domains about young children’s development, based on an understanding of developmental expectations and research, and using findings to inform families, services, and practices
Child ScreeningA procedure that is designed to identify only those children who may need a more intensive assessment of potential developmental delays
CircleA round two-dimensional figure that resembles a ring.
CognitiveThinking activity; conscious intellectual activity
Cognitive DevelopmentThe process by which young children build upon previous learning and experiences, scan their immediate environments, seek additional information, and then solve problems and challenges that they encounter in their everyday interactions with people and objects.
CompetencyAbility; the ability to do something, especially measured against a standard
Complex SentenceA sentence that includes at least one independent clause and at least one dependent clause (a part of a sentence that has a subject and predicate but cannot stand on its own as a separate sentence). In the sentence, “After the children went out to the playground, the teacher put the snacks on the tables, “the first phrase is a dependent clause.
ComprehensionUnderstanding what one has heard or what one has read (e.g., a child is able to answer questions or make comments about a story that someone has read aloud to them).
Concept and MemoryThe capacity of young children to learn about the differences and similarities among objects, people and situations, and to use that information in their exploration of new environments
CongenitalExisting at birth
ContentInformation contained in a story or lesson
Creative ArtsThe expression and representation of each child’s unique world through music, art, movement and dance.
Creative MovementMoving in a new and/or unusual way that isn’t directed by the teacher (e.g., a child dances to music played by the teacher).
CreativityIndividuality expressed by creating something new or original (e.g., creating a new representation of a flower).
Creativity and InventivenessThe capacity of young children to use alternate and new strategies to explore their worlds and to solve problems
CultureThe customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group
CultureThe customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.
CuriosityA strong interest in learning about something; children demonstrate curiosity when they ask questions about or show interest in activities within the classroom and the world around them (e.g., a child asks questions about new materials in the art center or a bug discovered on the playground).
CurriculumEverything a child experiences in an early learning program, including social interactions, learning experiences and routines; Curriculum has multiple components, such as goals, content, and instructional practices. Curriculum is influenced by many factors, including society’s values, content standards, accountability systems, research findings, community everything a child experiences in an early learning program, including social interactions, learning experiences and routines; Curriculum has multiple components, such as goals, content, and instructional practices. Curriculum is influenced by many factors, including society’s values, content standards, accountability systems, research findings, community Expectations, culture and language, and individual children’s characteristics.
Developmental AssessmentEither an informal or a structured evaluation of a child's growth in the areas of physical, language, intellectual, social, and emotional development
Developmental ScreeningA short, quick procedure designed to identify children who might need to be referred for more intensive evaluation of potential developmental delays
Developmentally Appropriate PracticeThe provision of learning opportunities designed to encourage the practice of newly-acquired skills while offering challenges just beyond young children’s current mastery level, and doing so in a safe, nurturing environment.
DigraphTwo separate sounds joined together to create a new sound (e.g., /sh/ shoes; /ch/ chair).
Disciplinary WordsWords used to describe content areas (e.g., science, social studies, math, and literacy).
DiscoveryEngaging students in deep learning that promotes exploration, problem solving, creativity, and student engagement.
DiversityThe inclusion of different people (as people of different races or cultures) in a group or organization
DomainAn area of development or knowledge
Dramatic PlayExpressive and spontaneous play.
EagernessEnergy and excitement about learning; wanting to learn (e.g., a child desires to participate in an activity).
Eagerness and CuriosityThe capacity of young children to explore situations and people that is unfamiliar
Early ReadingThe development of young children’s vocabulary knowledge, phonological and print awareness, and love of literature through a variety of print and audio materials and experiences
Early WritingThe development of young children’s capacity to represent their ideas and feelings on paper through a variety of experiences utilizing writing implements
Emergent Literacythe range of a child’s developmental skills, knowledge, and attitudes (beginning at birth), that combine with a variety of experiences related to written language; these experiences produce behaviors that change over time and result in conventional literacy during middle childhood.
Emergent ReadingReading-related experiences and actions that occur before a child reaches the conventional literacy stage in middle childhood (e.g., a child shows interest in being read to and told what written words mean and develops an understanding of how to use books and other printed materials appropriately).
Emergent WritingWriting-related experiences and actions that occur before a child reaches the conventional literacy stage in middle childhood (e.g., a child draws pictures or symbols to represent words).
EmergingComing about slowly; showing up a little at a time
Emotional ReadinessThe ability to understand and express one’s own feelings, understand the feelings of others, cooperate with peers/adults, and resolve conflicts.
EmpathyUnderstanding of another’s feelings.
EnvironmentThe circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one interacts with andis surrounded.
Expansion QuestionQuestion asked in order to extend the thought process of the student (e.g., “what do you think will happen next?”).
ExplorationThe act of studying something new to better understand it.
Exploration and DiscoveryThe capacity of young children to use their prior learning and new skills to make sense of situations, events and relationships
Expressive languageWhat children can say to communicate with others, progressing from coos and gurgles to words and sentences; includes sign and gesture in children with limited speech abilities
Expressive LanguageThe ability to communicate with words; refers to what a child says, not how it is said.
Eye-hand coordinationThe ability to coordinate movements between the eye and handto complete a task (e.g., hitting a softball or catching a bean bag).
FamilyA group of individuals living together
Fine motor skillsAbilities using the small muscles of the hands; activities using these skills include grasping toys, picking up or holding food, connecting links, lacing, drawing, crushing paper and cutting
Functional LanguageVocabulary used to communicate the description of, use of, and/or directions pertaining to an item or task (e.g., same/different).
General KnowledgeThe accumulation of information about people, objects and situations, facilitating growth of young children’s problem-solving and daily interaction skills
GeneticCaused by, or controlled by genes
Gross motor skills Abilities using large muscles of the arms, legs and torso: activities using these skills include crawling, pulling up, walking, running, jumping, pedaling, throwing and dancing
HealthA term that encompasses young children’s physical, dental, auditory, visual and nutritional development and well-being
Health and wellnessUnderstanding that regularly participating in physical activity,eating nutritious foods, and maintaining good hygiene promote good health and wellbeing(e.g., a child chooses to eat fruits or vegetables because they are healthy foods,participates in games that involve movement, or washes his/her hands before lunch toremove dirt and germs).
Health Care ProvidersOne’s main physician and dentist, as well as other specialists whoprovide annual checkups and needed medical care.
Height and weight assessmentsEvaluations to measure child’s height and weight todetermine whether they are within normal (healthy) limits.
InitiateTo begin something, taking the first step.
Initiation SkillsSocially acceptable ways to enter a group that is already engaged, such as mentioning a common interest (e.g., “I like cars too. Can I play race track with you?”).
Interpersonal SkillsThe ability to get along with others.
IntonationThe normal rise and fall in pitch that occurs as people speak. Changes in intonation typically occur when certain words are stressed or at the end of sentences (e.g., the upswing when a question is being asked, or the drop that marks the end of a complete sentence or thought).
InventivenessChildren’s ability to make discoveries and explore ideas, objects, and materials
InvestigatingObserving or inquiring in detail.
Language and CommunicationThe growth of young children’s capacity to gather and share information through verbal and written communications with others
Language of SchoolThe vocabulary, sentence structure, and content of language that is a key part of the educational experience.
Life/AdaptiveAge-appropriate skills and behaviors necessary for children to move comfortably in a variety of social settings and to function safely and appropriately in daily life.
Manner WordsWords used to express appreciation, gratitude, or notice of an error (e.g., please, thank you, excuse me).
Mathematical ThinkingThe capacity of young children to identify spatial, temporal, and numerical relationships among objects and among people, and to use that information to better understand their world
MilestoneAsignificant point in development
MusicSound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through theelements of rhythm, melody, harmony.
NutritionThe process of absorbing nutrients from food and processing them in the bodyin order to stay healthy or to grow.
NutritiousContaining the nutrients that are necessary for life and growth (e.g., raw fruitsand vegetables are nutritious foods).
OnsetFirst sound(s) before the rime (vowel sound to the end of the word) (e.g., In the word dog, the onset is /d/ and the rime is “og”.).
Oral healthOverall health of mouth, free of disease, defect, or pain. This translates tomuch healthy teeth.
Oral hygieneKeeping the mouth, tongue, teeth, and gums clean (e.g., brushing andflossing daily).
Oral LanguageSpoken language.
Organizational LanguageVocabulary used to communicate placement of an item and or provides direction towards an item (e.g., in front of, behind, next to, opposite, below).
Outcome MeasurementNot sure how this is used in the standards…
PersistenceA child’s ability to stick with a task for a time, sometimes employing creative methods to solve problems, such as fitting a puzzle piece into its place, without giving up easily
PhonemeThe smallest unit of speech distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
Phonological AwarenessThe awareness that language is composed of sounds and the understanding of the relationships among these sounds.
Physical DevelopmentThe growth of young children’s gross and fine motor and self-help skills, as well as their physical, dental and nutritional growth
PhysiologicalHaving to do with a child’s healthy or normal body functions
Pincer graspThe act of holding objects between the thumb and index finger
PlanningThe process of mental preparation and problem-solving in order to accomplish anact (e.g., a child tells the teacher what he/she will do during center time).
Planning and ReflectionThe capacity of young children to think about their actions before initiating an event, and to evaluate the results of their behaviors
PredictionAn idea (opinion) stated about what may happen in the future (e.g., a child may predict that the caterpillar will turn into a butterfly).
Problem-Solving and Creative ExpressionThe capacity of young children to use current knowledge and skills to gain information, interpret their surroundings, and to try out multiple solutions to challenges they are facing in their environments
ProsocialBehaviors that are helpful, caring and respectful of others; skills that enable children to engage positively with others, understand themselves and others better, and express and understand emotions
Read AloudsThe teacher reading to the whole class, building on students' existing skills while introducing different types of literature and new concepts.
Recall QuestionQuestion asked of students to prompt them to recount the events of a story or occurrence.
Receptive LanguageThe understanding of language that is heard (e.g., a child understands when the teacher says, “It’s time to line up.”).
ReflectionThe process of reviewing and critiquing one’s own actions or one’s own work (e.g., the child shares with the teacher what he/she did during center time.
ReportingTrying to help keep a child or children out of danger because they may get hurt or they are being hurt (e.g., target/victim of a bully).
RhymeA match between the sounds of two or more words or word endings (e.g., spoon, moon).
RimeThe vowel and any sounds that come after the vowel in a one-syllable word (e.g., the rime of cat is /at/; the rime of cheese is /ez/).
ScaffoldingThe provision of sufficient support to promote learning when concepts and skillsare being first introduced to students (e.g., modeling, giving clues, asking questions, andproviding verbal prompts).
Scientific ThinkingThe capacity of young children to ask questions, develop hypotheses, test the predictions, and evaluate the results
Self-CareThe capacity to take care of personal needs (e.g., drinking from a cup, gettingdressed, washing hands, making choices, toileting independently).
Self-conceptA child’s understanding of who they are in the world, including their personality traits, what they are good at, and how they relate to others
Self-helpA child’s ability to accomplish health and self-care routines, such as dressing, washing hands, and toileting, with or without help from an adult
Self-regulation A child’s ability to gain control of bodily functions, manage powerful emotions, and maintain focus and attention
SeriationGrouping things based on a single attribute, for example lining up counting bears from smallest to largest
SkillsThe ability to use knowledge effectively and readily in performance, the ability totransform knowledge into action.
SkillsThe ability to use knowledge effectively and readily in performance; the ability to transform knowledge into action.
Social ReadinessThe ability to cooperate with peers and adults to resolve conflicts.
Social StudiesThe capacity of young children to identify family roles and relationships, understand how groups function, and to use social information in their daily interactions with others.
Social-Emotional DevelopmentThe growth of young children’s capacity to form and maintain positive and productive relationships with others, and to understand and value their own abilities and uniqueness
StandardAn expectation regarding a skill or knowledge level that a young child will exhibit based on study and research of a child population group
SyllableA unit of spoken language consisting of a single uninterrupted sound formed by a vowel, diphthong, or syllabic consonant alone, or by any of these sounds preceded, followed, or surrounded by one or more consonants.
TactileRelating to the sense of touch
TargetThe victim or focus of a bully.
TattlingGiving information to an adult to try to get another child or children in trouble when they aren’t hurting themselves or others.
TemperamentHabitual mode of emotional response
Vision ScreeningEvaluation conducted to determine how well a child can see.
VocabularyAll of the words of a language. There are two types of vocabulary: receptive andexpressive.
VocabularyAll of the words of a language. There are two types of vocabulary: receptive and expressive.
Writing ConventionsPractices that include beginning a letter with a greeting (e.g., “Dear” or “To Whom it May Concern”), ending a story with “the end,” and similar regularly used practices.